期刊 近零功耗物联网及其关键技术研究  被引量:2

Research on Internet of Things with Near-zero Power Consumption and Its Key Technologies

作  者:卢宁宁[1] 张海鹏[1] 杨悦[1] 翟立君[1] 刘允[1] 宋瑞良[1] 

LU Ningning;ZHANG Haipeng;YANG Yue;ZHAI Lijun;LIU Yun;SONG Ruiliang(Beijing Research & Development Center,the 54th Research Institute of CETC,Beijing 100070,China)

机构地区:[1]中国电子科技集团公司第五十四研究所北京研发中心

出  处:《无线电通信技术》2019年第4期343-350,共8页Radio Communications Technology

Research on Internet of Things with Near-zero Power Consumption and Its Key Technologies

基  金:921载人航天预研项目(060401);国防科工局“十三五”民用航天预研项目(B0105)

摘  要:分析了物联网中物端节点面临的供电有限、功耗过大、补能困难等根本性问题,在此基础上,提出了近零功耗物联网的概念,旨在摒弃传统的电池供电方式,将客观环境中固有的电磁信号、电磁干扰等微能量转化为直流功率,为物端节点补充电能;同时探索微弱供电高效利用方法,将物端节点的联网功耗降低到几十微瓦水平,与环境电磁波可以提供的微弱能量供给相匹配,从而实现可持续运转的无线智慧网络。从系统架构、关键技术两方面讨论了近零功耗物联网的技术现状,分析了最新技术发展趋势,指出多频带电磁能量拾取、基于后向散射的集中式组网等主流研究方向。介绍了中国电子科技集团公司第五十四研究所在近零功耗物联网领域的技术创新成果:①设计了单天线多频段电磁能量高效拾取技术,支持多频段电磁信号综合供电,电磁能量转化效率不低于30%;②设计了基于后向散射的超低功耗无线通信技术,在通信功耗小于130μW的前提下,室内通信距离≥20 m,通信速率≥1 kbps;③设计了基于边沿检测的超低功耗无授权接入技术,在不增加物端节点能量消耗前提下,支持不少于20个物端节点的并发接入。

The fundamental problems of limited power supply,excessive power consumption and difficult battery replenishment of micro intelligent embedded module in Io T are analyzed.On this basis,the conception of IoT with near-zero power consumption(NZ-IoT) is proposed. In this conception,the traditional battery power supply mode is abandoned,and the micro-energy such as inherent electromagnetic signals and electromagnetic interference in external environment is transformed into DC power for complementing electric energy of micro intelligent embedded module.The high-efficiency utilization method of micro-energy is explored.The power consumption of micro intelligent embedded module decreases to tens microwatts,which can be matched with the micro energy provided by environmental electromagnetic wave.Thus the wireless smart network which can continuously run is implemented.The technical status quo of IoT with near-zero power consumption is discussed from such two aspects as architecture and key technologies.The novel technical development trend is analyzed.The main research direction of multi-band electromagnetic energy havesting and centralized networking based on backscatter mechanism of electromagnetic wave are pointed out.The research achievements of CETC 54 in NZ-IoT:① The efficient multi-band electromagnetic energy harvesting technology based on single antenna is designed to support integrated power supply of multi-band electromagnetic signals.The transformation efficiency of electromagnetic energy is not less than 30%;② The wireless communication technology with ultra-low power consumption based on backscatter is designed.When the communication power consumption is less than 130 microwatts,the indoor communication distance is not less than 20 m,and the communication rate is not less than 1 kbps;③ The unlicensed access technology with ultra-low power consumption based on edge detection is designed.It supports the concurrent access of not less than 20 micro intelligent embedded modules without increasing their ener

关 键 词:物联网 近零功耗 电磁能量拾取 后向散射 

IoT near-zero power-consumption electromagnetic energy harvesting backscatter 

分 类 号:TP319[自动化与计算机技术—计算机软件与理论]

 

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